Nature has lavished Pakistan with a plethora of gemstones. Some of these contribute to Pakistan’s prominence in the mineral industry. Pakistan is home to some of the world’s most prized colored gemstones, including Emerald, Ruby, Sapphire, Topaz, Aquamarine, and Tourmaline.
An examination of Pakistan’s territorial history demonstrates that its people and kings held gemstones in high regard. This is evidenced by the artifacts of the Gandhara and Indus civilizations.
In addition, the three world-famous mountains known as the Hindukush, Himalaya, and Karakorum encircle Pakistan’s northern and northwestern regions.
Mineral resources have been discovered in abundance in these mountains. The bottomless green Emerald of Sawat Valley and the rare pink Topaz of Katlang are two of the world’s most valuable jewels.
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There are list of states where it is found:-
Pakistani mining The following are some of Pakistan’s few potential/major gemstone mining areas: (Only the most valuable diamonds are included)
1. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is just a Pakistani division
- Swat (Malakand division) – Emerald, various varieties of quartz, and epidote
- Katlang Pink Rhinestone (Mardan division)
- Dir (Malakand Division) – Corundum and quartz
- Mansehra (Hazara division) – corundum and smoky quartz
- Kohistan Peridot (Hazara division)
- Peshawar district – Quartz with astrophyllite/riebeckite, xenotime, or bastnaesite fiber inclusion
2. The Federal Government Manages Tribal Areas
- Agate, clinozoisite, sphene, and epidote – Mohmand Agency
- Scapolite in emerald, garnet, and orange hues from the Bajaur Agency
- Quartz with astrophyllite/riebeckite, xenotime, and bastnaesite inclusions from the Khyber Agency
- Faden quartz, diamond quartz, ghost quartz, quartz with chlorite inclusions, and window quartz – North and South Waziristan agencies
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3. Azad Jammu and Kashmir & Gilgit Baltistan
- Chilas (Diamer district) – Alluvial deposits contain diopside, zircon, rutile quartz, aquamarine, and tourmaline.
- Aquamarine, topaz (golden and white), emerald, ruby, pollucite, rutile quartz, morganite, apatite, spinel, and pargasite (all within the Gilgit district)
- Aquamarine, topaz, tourmaline, apatite, sphene, morganite, and quartz – Shengus, Stak Nala, and Tormiq Nala (Baltistan Skardu Road, Baltistan district)
- Apatite, zoisite, rutile quartz, epidote, and morganite (in the Baltistan region, near Skardu
- Childee, Kashmal, and Yuno – aquamarine, emerald-green tourmaline, apatite, morganite, topaz, and quartz (Shigar forest, Baltistan district)
4. Mountain Ranges of Pakistan
The Karakoram is in a state of upheaval. The Karakoram, which translates to “black” in Turkish, is a magnificent assemblage of dark brown and black rocks located in a unique mountain range. It contains the world’s largest range of extremely high pinnacles and mountains, stretching over 400 km. This density is 250 km deep.
The Shyok River runs through it on the east, and the Karamber, Ishkuman, and Gilgit rivers go through it on the west. The Shakugan River runs through it on the north, and the Shyok and Indus rivers run through it on the south.
5. Aquamarine is a gemstone found in Gilgit Baltistan
Gilgit Baltistan is divided into districts. In the Diamer Chilas District, Shigar, there are diopside, zircon, rutile quartz, aquamarine, and tourmaline deposits. The aquamarine stone from Coat Valley Mine is well-known.
Aquamarine, topaz, emerald, ruby, pollucite, scheelite rutile quartz, organize, apatite, spinel, and Hamber guide are among the valuable and semi-precious stones found in Shigar District.
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In Gilgit Baltistan’s Ghizer Valley, various quartz stones can be found. The Nager region has a lot of aquamarine deposits. Sumayeer Chumar Bukar is a well-known mine. Nager mine has quartz as well.
The majority of northern Pakistani aquamarines have a lengthy hexagonal prism habit and can grow to be a dozen centimeters in length. Matrix minerals such as albite, muscovite, and tourmaline (schorl) are widely found, and the majority of these are collected as mineral specimens. Some of them are gem-quality and can be used as jewelry.
Local merchants who deal with Pakistani stuff provided aquamarine samples from the Shigar Valley. The samples were translucent to transparent, with colors ranging from pale greenish blue to pale blue to practically colorless.
6. Hunza District Gemstones and Hunza Mining
Ruby belongs to the corundum nutrient family, and sapphire would be its closest relative. Due to the limited amount of chromium pigments ingrained in the earth’s mantle and the reality that the chromium would have to merge with the component alumina at the precise moment crystalline structure occurred, the ruby is a unique gemstone.
The ruby loses a lot of its red color if these two elements are missing. Burma was the source of the first rubies until now. However, sources comparable to conventional Burmese material may have already been found with the discovery of rubies in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Both occurrences are related to key tectonic characteristics linked with Himalayan orogenesis, whether directly in Himalayan suture zones or in shear zones that drove the Indochina block’s extrusion after the collision in Southeast Asia. In addition, Ruby-containing minerals support the origin of these deposits during Himalayan orogenesis.
Gemstones are unique minerals that are both uncommon and extremely hard. Precious and semi-precious gemstones are divided into two categories. Diamond, ruby, sapphire, and emerald are precious gemstones.
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Because of their extraordinary hardness and optical qualities, these valuable gemstones are particularly important in the jewellery sector and other industries. All four gemstone formations are found in India in various geographical and geological contexts.
Whether gemstones are discovered in situ (inside the host rock where they originated) or as subsequent placer layers stripped from or poured out of the rock layers and accumulated elsewhere determines the mining process used. The location, accessibility, and availability of a local workforce and the political climate are all important considerations.